Guidelines for style and referencing

Old Testament Essays (New Series) follow the Chicago Manual of Style as presented in the SBL Handbook of Style, first edition.

Notes on referencing:

i. First reference in footnote:

Note that article titles and book titles follows the title case for substantives, adjectives, verbs and adverbs.  

Note the comma after the name.

Subtitles are indicated by a colon (:)

Note that first names are used and in the footnote they are mention first. One first name is enough. The second name is abbreviated by an initial.   

Book:

15 James L. Crenshaw, Ecclesiastes: A Commentary (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987), 178. 

Essay in book:

15 Jean-Jaques Lavoie, “‘Laisse Aller ton Pain sur la Surface des Eaux’ Étude Qohélet 11,2,” in The Language of Qohelet in its Context (ed. Angelika Berlejung and Pierre Van Hecke; Leuven: Peeters, 2007), 75.

Note the difference with a reference to a book with more than one editor. In a reference to an essay in a book, the author of the essay is different from the editors. In an edited book, the editors are also the authors of the different chapters in the book.

When the article is in a Festschrift, the editor’s name is not written in full, but simply the initial and surname is given, i.e. (ed. A. Berlejung; Leuven: Peeters, 2007), 75. 

Article in Journal:

15 Willy Staerk,  “Zur Exegese von Koh 10:20 und 11:1,” ZAW 59 (1942/43): 217.

Article in an Online Journal:

15 Gerrie Snyman, “Sensed fittingness between act and consequence: The last acts of Esther in the book of Esther and Grace in the film Dogville”, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 69(1), 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1972

Take note that it is necessary to publish the DOI with the reference. 

Article in Dictionary: 

15 Wolfgang G. Müller,  “Ironie,” Reallexikon der deutschen Literaturwissenschaft 2: 185.

Book in a series (series not mentioned in footnote but in bibliography at end of article): 

15 Carl Heinz Ratschow, Werden und Wirken: Eine Untersuchung des Wortes hajah als Beitrag zur Wirklichkeitserfassung des Alten Testamentes (Berlin: Töpelmann, 1941), 35. 

Unpublished thesis and dissertation:

15 Natashia C. Van der Merwe, “The Identification of Whole and Unwhole Bodies in the Book of Judges.” (DLitt et Phil thesis, University of Johannesburg), 2009. 

Paper at a conference:

15 David A. Bainbridge, “Use of Acorns for Food in California: Past, Present, Future. Presented at the Symposium on Multiple-use Management of California’s Hardwoods, November 12-14. (San Luis Obispo, California, 1986). [Cited 2 November 2014.] Online:  http://www.ecocomposite.org/native /UseOfAcornsForFoodInCalifornia.doc.

If the paper is without an electronic version, the following is suitable:

15 David A. Bainbridge, “Use of Acorns for Food in California: Past, Present, Future. Presented at the Symposium on Multiple-use Management of California’s Hardwoods, November 12-14. (San Luis Obispo, California, 1986), 1-17.

Internet article/ electronic version without a print counterpart

15 Greg Neyman,  “Biblical Interpretation and Theology: Creation Science and Genesis 1. Answers in Creation,” n.p. [cited 2 November 2008]. Online: http://www.answersincreation.org/genesis1.htm. 

Note that URL addresses are never hyphenated at the end of a line and should be divided before the “dot” at the end of a line.

Note that square brackets are used.

Internet dictionary

15 David Wong, “Comparative Philosophy: Chinese and Western,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition), n. p. [cited 18 February 2010], (ed.Edward N. Zalta). Online: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2009/entries/comparphil-chiwes.      

Wikipedia

15 Wikipedia contributors, “Explication,” n.p. [cited 18 February 2010]. Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Explication&oldid=298838610. 

Websites

15 2008 International Meeting, Program Units, “Congresses,” Society of Biblical Literature [cited 2 February 2010]. Online: http://www.sbl-site.org/meetings/Congresses_Program Units.aspx?MeetingId=13.

15 Barbara O’Brien, “Atheism and Devotion in Buddhism,” n.p. About.com: Buddhism [cited 17 May 2010]. Online: http://buddhism.about.com/od/ basicbuddhistteachings/a/buddhaatheism.htm.

CD Rom (i.e. Logos) 

15 Duane F. Watson, “False Apostles,” n.p., ABD on CD-ROM. Version 2.0c. 1995, 1996.

Translated work

15 Claus Westermann, Genesis 1-11: A Commentary (trans. J. J. Scullion; Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1984), 184.

Work with one or more editor

15 Haroon Bhorat and Ravi  Kanbur, eds., Poverty and Policy in Post-apartheid South Africa (Cape Town: HSRC Press, 2006), 23. 

[for one editor, the following is used: ed.,].

A revised edition 

15 Hans-Joachim Kraus, Psalmen 64-150 (4th ed.; Neukirchen:  Neukirchener Verlag, 1972), 571. Take note: if the article is in English, the footnote should also be, hence 4th. ed. and not 4. Aufl. 

Theological Dictionaries 

15.  K. Dahn, W. Liefeld, “See, Vision, Eye,” NIDNTT 3:511-21. 

ii. Subsequent references in footnotes if sources are referred to more than once:  

Name, comma, abbreviated name of article or book, comma, page number.

Book:

15 Crenshaw, Ecclesiastes, 178. 

Essay in book:

15 Lavoie, “Étude Qohélet 11,2,”  75.

Article in Journal:

15 Staerk, “Koh 10:20 und 11:1,” 217. 

Article in an Online Journal:

15 Snyman, “Sensed fittingness between act and consequence,” 3.

Article in Dictionary:

15Müller, “Ironie,” 2: 185. 

Book in a series:

15 Ratschow, Werden und Wirken, 35. 

Unpublished Thesis and dissertation:

15 Van der Merwe, “Whole and Unwhole Bodies”, 200. 

Paper at conference:

15 Bainbridge, “Use of Acorns for Food in California,” n. p.  

OR:

15 Bainbridge, “Use of Acorns for Food in California, 4. 

Internet article/ electronic version without a print counterpart

15 Neyman, “Creation Science and Genesis 1,” http://www.answersincreation  .org/genesis1.htm.  

Internet dictionary

15 David Wong, “Comparative Philosophy: Chinese and Western,” http://plato.stanford.edu/archives /win2009 /entries/comparphil-chiwes.

Wikipedia

15 Wikipedia contributors, “Explication,” http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php ?title=Explication&oldid=298838610. 

Websites

15 2008 International Meeting, “Congresses,” http://www.sbl-site.org/meetings/Congresses_Program Units.aspx?MeetingId=13.

CD Rom (i.e. Logos)

15 Watson, “False Apostles,” n.p.

Translated work

15 Westermann, Genesis 1-11, 87.

Work with one or more editor

15 Bhorat & Kanbur, Poverty and Policy, 23. 

[for one editor, the following is used: ed.,].

A revised edition

15 Kraus, Psalmen 64-150, 571.

Note the comma after the name. 

Theological Dictionaries

15 Dahn and Liefeld, NIDNTT 3:511.

iii. Reference in bibliography at end of article 

Book:

Crenshaw, James L. Ecclesiastes: A Commentary. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987. 

Essay in book:

Lavoie, Jean-Jaques. “ ‘Laisse Aller ton Pain sur la Surface des Eaux’ Étude Qohélet 11,2.” Pages 75-90 in The Language of Qohelet in its Context. Edited by Angelika Berlejung and Pierre Van Hecke, Leuven: Peeters, 2007.

Note the page reference. 

Article in Journal:

Staerk, Willy. “Zur Exegese von Koh 10:20 und 11:1.” ZAW 59 (1942/43): 216-218. 

Article in an Online Journal:

Snyman, Gerrie. “Sensed fittingness between act and consequence: The last acts of Esther in the book of Esther and Grace in the film Dogville”, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 69(1). 9 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1972.  

Take note that it is necessary to publish the DOI with the reference. 

Article in Dictionary:

Müller, Wolfgang G. “Ironie,” Pages 184-189 in vol. 2 of Reallexikon der deutschen Literaturwissenschaft. Edited by Harald Fricke. 36 vols. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2007.

Book in a series:

Ratschow, Carl. H. Werden und Wirken: Eine Untersuchung des Wortes hajah als Beitrag zur Wirklichkeitserfassung des Alten Testamentes. BZAW 70. Berlin: Töpelmann, 1941. 

Unpublished thesis and dissertation:

Van der Merwe, Natashia C. “The Identification of Whole and Unwhole Bodies in the Book of Judges.” DLitt et Phil thesis, University of Johannesburg, 2009.

Paper at a conference:

Bainbridge, David A. Use of Acorns for Food in California: Past, Present, Future. Paper presented at the Symposium on Multiple-use Management of California’s Hardwoods, San Luis Obispo, California, November 12-14, 1986. Cited 2 November 2010. Online: http://www.ecocomposite .org/native/UseOfAcornsForFoodInCalifornia.doc 

OR:

Bainbridge, David A. Use of Acorns for Food in California: Past, Present, Future. Paper presented at the Symposium on Multiple-use Management of California’s Hardwoods, San Luis Obispo, California, November 12-14, 1986.

Internet article/ electronic version without a print counterpart

Neyman, Greg. “Biblical Interpretation and Theology: Creation Science and Genesis 1. Answers in Creation.” No Pages. Cited 2 November 2008. Online: http://www.answersincreation.org/genesis1.htm. 

Wikipedia contributors. “Explication.” No Pages. Cited 19 February 2010. Online: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Explication&oldid =298838610. 

Internet dictionary

Wong, David. “Comparative Philosophy: Chinese and Western.” No Pages in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2009 Edition). Edited by Edward N. Zalta. Cited 10 February 2010. Online: http://plato.stanford .edu/archives/win2009/entries/comparphil-chiwes.

Websites 

2008 International Meeting, Program Units, “Congresses,” Society of Biblical Literature. Cited 2 February 2010. Online: http://www.sbl-site.org/meetings /Congresses_Program Units.aspx?MeetingId=13.

CD Rom (i.e. Logos)

Watson, Duane F. “False Apostles.” The Anchor Bible Dictionary on CD-ROM.Logos Library System Version 2.0c. 1995, 1996. Print ed.: David Noel Freedman, ed. Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Translated work

Westermann, Claus. Genesis 1-11: A commentary. Translated by John J. Scullion. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1984.

Work with one or more editor

Bhorat, Haroon  & Ravi Kanbur, eds., Poverty and Policy in Post-apartheid South Africa.  Cape Town: HSRC Press, 2006.

Note the full stop after the name in the above examples EXCEPT the one with the editors, where a comma is needed. Also note that the word order for the second editor is different: name + surname.

A revised edition 

Kraus, Hans-Joachim. Psalmen 64-150. 4th ed. Neukirchen:  Neukirchener Verlag, 1972.

Theologocial Dictionary

Brown, Colin, ed. New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. 4. Vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. 1975-1985.  

In the bibliography the entire dictionary is cited and not the specific reference.


The following are in small caps:

Yhwh

Version of translations: Nrsv, etc

b.c.e. or b.c. / a.d. / c.e. 

Take note that if b.c.e. or b.c. / a.d. / c.e. is at the end of a sentence, and extra period is required to indicate the end of the sentence: b.c.e..


Stems in Hebrew:

The stems in Hebrew are written in italics without the first letter capitalised. Note the use of the single start quotation mark ‘ to indicate the ‘ayin

qal pu‘al hitpa‘el

nip‘al hip‘il

pi‘el hop‘al


Emphasising in a citation: 

When citing someone else and you need to emphasise certain words, italicise the words emphasised and add after the citation in square brackets the following: [My emphasis, Your Initials]

For example:

Beyond these references to literal roads and journeys … the image of the path or way embodies a profound reflection on fundamental ethical themes, the conduct of God and humanity, and the character of God’s salvation.15 [My emphasis, A. B.]

Note that the citation is rounded off with a period after which reference to the emphasis is stated. Also note the position of the footnote reference.